解説

リズムに富んだ表現の重要性

このFor the Keen Dancer (熱心なダンサーのために)という章の中でもっとも重要な部分は、最後のExpression in Dancing(ダンスにおける表現方法)だとtamaは考えています。

その中でアレックス・ムーアMBEが重要視しているのは Softness「柔らかさ」)Expression「表現」) という点です。

その初めの方でアレックス・ムーアMBEは better rhythmic expression という言い方をしています。これをどう考えるかは人によって異なってもいいと思いますが、これを直訳した日本語の「リズミカルな表現」という意味にとると私にはどうもしっくり来ません。そのため、英語のrhythmic の意味を同義語辞典を調べ、もっと多様な意味を持つことが確認できました。そのため、色々と検討した結果「リズムに富んだ表現」と訳しました。

アレックス・ムーアMBEは、いくつかのフィガーで比較して、「リズムに富んだ表現」とはどんなことなのか、説明を試みています。

そして、それをどのように達成するかということについて以下のように説明しています。

It is done by stealing time from one step to give a hovering effect to the next;
それは、あるステップの時間を盗んで次のステップにホバリング効果を与えることによってなされる;

この説明は、音楽用語の  Tempo Rubato (テンポ・ルバート。イタリア語。直訳すれば「盗まれた時間」)をご存知ならば理解しやすいと思います。ダンス的に言うと、「音楽のビートにムーブメントをぴったり合わせるのではなくて、ビートよりムーブメントをずらす」ということになると思います。(多くの場合はビートよりムーブメントを遅らせるほうが多い。)

さらにそれを具体的に実行するために以下の2点をあげています。

by softening the knees,
すなわち膝を柔らかくすることによって、
and by appreciating that if the lady is given the correct lead she will help to create the impetus to gain this effect without obvious effort. 
また、女子に正しいリードが与えられるならば男子は明らかな努力なしにこの効果を得るための推進力を生み出すのに役立つということを理解することによって

以下にルバートのテクニックを用いた好例をご紹介します。

 

 

ステップを音楽に合わせるのか、ボディの動きを音楽に合わせるのか

ダンスを踊る際、ステップを音楽に合わせることだけにいつまでも固執しているダンサーには、アレックス・ムーアMBEが以下のように指摘しているということを覚えておいて頂きたいと思います。

There are dozens of other instances where playing with the timing, achieved through the movement of the body rather than the placing of the feet, can make the dancing fascinating to watch and intensely satisfying to the dancer.
足の置き方よりむしろ、ボディの動きを通じて達成されるタイミングで踊ることが、見る人を魅了し、そのダンサーも大いに満足するということを可能にする例は他にもたくさんある。

 

ダンスにおける表現に関するレクチャー

私がアレックス・ムーアMBEが rhythmic に込めた意図に近いと考えている、元世界チャンピオンのルッカ・バリッキの優れたレクチャーをご紹介しておきます。Chapter 4 Music and Purpose をご覧ください。

 

SECTION VII FOR THE KEEN DANCER

 

AMATEUR MEDAL TESTS

In most sports and recreations it is possible to make a fairly accurate assessment of one’s progress. Yet for many years devotees of ballroom dancing, unless they belonged to the comparative few who compete in public dance halls, possessed no yardstick against which to measure their prowess. Today we have Amateur Medal Tests. There is no doubt that the general standard of ballroom dancing in this country has improved enormously since the leading professional associations and societies instituted these tests.

A few years ago the majority of pupils were content to reach a standard that would enable them to move round a ballroom without undue inconvenience to themselves or their partners; now the majority are only too glad to learn more thoroughly and to record their progress through the tests conducted by well-known professional examiners.

Since the adoption of these tests thousands of dancers have taken advantage of them. This is quite understandable, for ballroom dancing is such a delightful recreation, and the social atmosphere in most schools of dancing is so pleasant that to reach a reasonable standard is neither laborious nor expensive. Few other recreations provide such pleasure at such little cost. I strongly recommend Medal Tests to every amateur who finds pleasure in dancing. It is easier to improve when there is an incentive to work, and when that first medal has been won the dancer will derive confidence and pleasure, not only from the progress itself, but also from the knowledge that experts have acknowledged and set a seal to that progress.

Between Medal tests and competition dancing there is a large gulf. The “flare” and movement expected from the competition dancer is not expected in these tests, indeed, when used, it is liable to look out of place. The main points to concentrate on are:

    1. Neat and correct footwork. 2. A good upright poise and a correct hold.
    2. A quiet interpretation of the basic and standard figures and a soft movement.

In advanced tests consideration must be given to style and other technical details, but a careful study of the points enumerated above is sufficient for success in the Bronze and Silver grades.

Remember, it is not what you do, but how you do it. Although most societies issue a syllabus of figures for each grade, marks are not lost through the omission of a figure in any dance, but they are lost when a candidate dances a figure badly.

Any qualified teacher can train and enter you for a Medal Test.

 

COMPETITION DANCING

Keen dancers who have reached Silver or Gold Medal Test standard will often turn their thoughts to competition dancing. Far more glamour and excitement prevail in a competition at a well-known venue than in a Medal Test where one’s efforts are seen by none but the examiner.

Many medallists jump to the conclusion that if they have succeeded in passing the Gold test or above of one of the leading Societies they should have little difficulty in reaching one of the final places in a competition. Unfortunately this is far from true.

In Medal Tests the examiner looks for technical accuracy, good poise and movement, and style that does not offend, even if it does not attract. The candidate is not dancing against another couple but to a set general standard of dancing, viewed by that examiner over a given period.

The dancer who passes the highest grade Medal Test can be sure that his dancing is technically sound and that he moves correctly and with good style. Such knowledge is a necessary basis for competition dancing, but is not enough to make a first-class competition dancer. The movement of the competition dancer must be free and flowing and effortless. A figure or group of figures which have been danced well enough to please an examiner must now be danced with the rhythmic expression to make them appear completely alive. The style of the dancer or the couple must be more than correct – it must attract. More difficult groups of figures must be learned and the man, who is responsible for leading them, must know how and when he may underturn or overturn them for effect – or to avoid another couple. Seventy-five per cent of competition success comes from experience and training. There is no short cut to success, but the following notes should help the young competition dancer to avoid some of the more obvious faults which have ruined the chances of so many young couples.

The Hold

This is of vital importance. The general appearance of a couple will always strike the judge before he sees them actually dancing. Points to watch are:

The man’s L arm should be angled with the forearm inclined slightly forward, showing an unbroken line from elbow to hand. Watch the grouping of the fingers of the L hand and make sure that the hand does not droop downwards from the wrist. The knuckles of the L hand should be slightly higher than the wrist.

The R elbow must not drop down when leading the lady, especially when leading her into Promenade figures. The R forearm should slope downwards from the elbow to the R hand. If the R hand is held too high on the lady’s back, there will be a tendency to drop the R elbow. Many men keep the most pressure on the R wrist when holding the lady, and when this is done, the R hand, not being used, will dangle downwards from the wrist and will often move away from the partner’s back. This fault ruins the appearance of the couple. Avoid this by keeping a little pressure on the lady’s back with the index finger of the R hand. Study the illustrations in this book.

Ladies should watch the grouping of the fingers of the L hand. They should not be completely straight and stiff but grouped naturally, with the fingers slightly bent.

Dress

The appearance of a couple will obviously be enhanced if the lady has an attractive dress. Dress fashions for ladies alter so much that it would be unwise to make too many comments, however, the dress should always “move” and flow with the dancer. Nowadays, many businesses specialise in dance wear. Ask your teacher for advice. It can just as obviously be ruined if the man is badly dressed. A really good evening dress suit is very difficult to make and the competition dancer would be advised to seek the advice of an expert before ordering a suit for dancing. Here are some points to watch.

When the arms are raised the coat should not lift from the shoulders. A good shoulder line is essential and it should be possible to see at least a little of the white collar even when the arms are raised. A coat that lifts and covers the white collar gives an appearance of raised shoulders. It is equally important that a little of the white cuff should be seen. The sleeves of the coat should be narrow to give a smart arm line, and a narrow sleeve will grip the white cuff of the shirt and keep it in the same position at all times. The coat “tails” should reach to the top of the calf. Tails that are too short look rather silly; when too long they look untidy, and spoil the line.

One of the worst faults is to wear the trousers too short or too narrow. When standing normally the trouser leg should reach to the heel of the shoe. It is inevitable that when dancing some figures it may tend to touch the floor, but that is far better than having a short trouser leg that rises almost to the ankles when a long step is taken. If they are worn too narrow they give a man the appearance of dancing with bent knees. If worn too wide they look clumsy.

General

Presentation is a word very frequently used in connection with demonstration dancing by professionals, but presentation also plays its part in competition dancing. For example, the manner in which the lady uses her head in promenade figures can make a big difference to the picture presented by a couple in such variations as the Whisk and the Wing. Some ladies prefer to turn their heads to the right when in promenade, others keep the head turned to the left. Both are correct. The lady should use the method that looks most attractive, but the most annoying fault is that of affectation. Very often a lady who does not turn the head into the promenade position will turn it more to the left and at the same time raise the left shoulder with a rather coy expression. This type of affectation is annoying to watch and should be avoided. The ladies whose dancing is the most pleasing to watch are those who can use their heads naturally, and make them appear as a part of the body – and the picture.

Facial expression should also be studied. It is absurd to grin like a Cheshire cat throughout the contest. It is equally absurd to wear a grim expression. By all means open the mouth when smiling, but do not keep it open all the time.

The man should keep his head still and not move it from side to side as he turns or sways. Only when he leads his partner into a very open Fallaway position and a few other advanced figures should he turn to look at her.

Position

One of the most common faults in competition dancing is for the lady to dance too much on the man’s right side. The popularity of outside figures tends to make her slip to the man’s right side, and she often remains there. It is impossible to dance completely in front of the man but it will ruin the picture of a couple if the lady consistently dances on the man’s right hip.

The habit of many ladies of leaning well back from the hips, so that contact with the man is felt only at the hips instead of from the hips upwards, is a bad one, and tends to restrict the man’s movement. It also makes it very difficult for the man to step outside his partner without losing contact with her. Many points are lost in competitions through this fault.

Inadequate contact while executing outside steps is sometimes the fault of the man holding his weight too far back. The body must follow through with the foot. This will also help the man to avoid that “sitting down” effect so often seen on outside steps.

Variations

The inexperienced competition dancer often thinks that if half a dozen really difficult and “flashy” variations are included in each dance the judge will be impressed. Perhaps the best advice that can be given is to assure him that whereas a variation, no matter how difficult, will very seldom gain a point for a couple, a variation badly danced will inevitably lose them several points. In a competition where the standard of the couples is nearly even, the judges find it far easier to notice something they dislike than to be impressed by something they do like. Do not take risks. Choose a few figures that can be danced well and without the risk of faulty contact and unattractive body lines, and repeat these several times rather than risk employing a figure of which some part might displease the judge. If you have what you consider is a beautiful variation which you feel you can dance well, make sure that it is used between some sound basic work. A jewel in a plain setting will look far more attractive than a jewel in an ornate setting that can only detract from its beauty.

The keen competition dancer should also read the following section on “Expression in Dancing”.

 

EXPRESSION IN DANCING

ダンスにおける表現方法

There are hundreds of dancers who have a good floor appearance, correct technique and reasonably good movement, and yet they do not achieve greatness. What do they lack? Perhaps the most important differences between the good dancer and the outstanding dancer are in Softness and Expression.
ダンスフロアにおいて見た目が良く、技術が正しく、動きがかなり良いダンサーは何百人もいるが、それでも彼らは卓越さを達成しているというわけではない。 彼らには何が欠けているのか? おそらく、上手なダンサーと卓越したダンサーの最も重要な違いは、「柔らかさ」「表現」にある。

Most dancers know that the correct softening of the knee on a step such as the first step of any Waltz turn will give their dance a more pleasing appearance, and they strive to acquire it. Fewer competitors realize that to give their dancing better rhythmic expression means the difference between the ordinary and the great
ほとんどのダンサーは、ワルツターンの最初のステップなどのステップで膝を正しく柔らかく使うことで、ダンスがより魅力的な外観になることを知っており、それを習得しようと努めている。一方、その踊り方に対してリズムに富んだ「表現」を与えるということこそ、普通のダンスと素晴らしいダンスの差をもたらすということを理解している競技ダンサーは少ない。

 

A few rather obvious examples will help to convey what is meant by expression.
いくつかのかなり明白な例は、「表現」によって意味するものを伝える助けになる。

Watch the manner in which some dancers place the third step behind in the Whisk. It can be placed there rather quickly, dead on the beat, in which case there will most possibly be a jolt as the weight moves on to the step – or it can be almost “caressed” into position, slowly, with firm control, perhaps arriving slightly late but with good rhythmic expression.
一部のダンサーがウィスクのステップ3を後ろに置く方法を見てほしい。それはビートにぴったり合わせてかなり素早くそこに置くことができるが、その場合、ウェイトがそのステップ上に移動するときに衝撃が発生する可能性がある。そうではなくて、すこし遅めに着地するが、よいリズムで、しっかりとコントロールして、ゆっくりと所定の位置にほぼそっとなでるように置くこともできる。

The last three steps of the Natural Spin Turn in the Waltz can be danced with the strict timing of one beat for each step or a little speeding of the movement on the fourth step can result in almost hanging on the fifth step with a rather late and light sixth step which completely alters the character of the movement.
ワルツのナチュラルスピンターンの後半の3つのステップは、各ステップに1ビートの厳密なタイミングで踊ることができる。そうではなくて、ステップ4の動きを少し速くすると、ステップ5の上でかなりゆっくりととどまることになり、そしてステップ6で軽くステップすることで、ムーブメントの特徴を完全に変えることもできる。

The Feather and Three Step in the Foxtrot can be given their correct technical timing; or a delayed timing of the previous step on the Left foot (last step of the Natural Turn) can be followed by a bold swing on the first step of the Feather and a slightly delayed third step, which will completely alter the expression.
フォックストロットのフェザー・ステップとスリー・ステップでは、正しい技術的なタイミングを与えることができるが、そうではなくて、一つ前の左足のステップ(たとえばナチュラルターンの最後のステップ)のタイミングを遅らせた後、フェザーの最初のステップで大胆なスイングを行い、ステップ3を少し遅らせると、表現が完全に変わる。

There are dozens of other instances where playing with the timing, achieved through the movement of the body rather than the placing of the feet, can make the dancing fascinating to watch and intensely satisfying to the dancer.
足の置き方よりむしろ、ボディの動きを通じて達成されるタイミングで踊ることが、見る人を魅了し、そのダンサーも大いに満足するということを可能にする例は他にもたくさんある。

 

How is it done? Can it be acquired? It is done by stealing time from one step to give a hovering effect to the next; by softening the knees, and by appreciating that if the lady is given the correct lead she will help to create the impetus to gain this effect without obvious effort.
それはどのように行われるのか、またどのように習得することができるのか? それは、あるステップの時間を一部を盗んで次のステップにホバリング効果(tama注:いまのところ適切な日本語が見つからないが、ヘリコプターのホバリングのように空中に浮かんでそこに留まること)を与えることによって;膝を柔らかくすること、また、女子に正しいリードが与えられるならば男子は明らかな努力なしにこの効果を得るための推進力を生み出すのに役立つということを理解することによってである。

All this can be acquired by any skilled dancer who has a strong sense of rhythm, good balance and the patience to practice so that it appears as an integral part of the dance. The unrhythmic dancer will fail at first, but there is nothing to prevent the acquisition of such rhythmic interpretation by anyone who has shown sufficient ability to become an intelligent average dancer.
これらはすべて、優れたリズム感、優れたバランス感、そして、それらが一体化して見えるように練習する忍耐力を持っている熟練したダンサーなら誰でも習得できる。 リズム感が不足しているダンサーは最初はうまくいかないだろうが、物覚えのいい平均的なダンサーになるのに十分な能力を示した人であればそのようなリズミカルな解釈を習得することを妨げるものは何もない。

 

Possibly the best amalgamation to practice is the Natural Turn ending with the Closed Impetus in the Foxtrot. Here are some hints for the man.
おそらく、練習するのに最適なアマルガメーションは、フォックストロットの、クローズド・インピタスで終わるナチュラルターンである。 ここにその男子のためのいくつかのヒントがある。

Dance 1, 2, 3 of the Natural Turn and then continue into the Closed Impetus in the following way:
ナチュラルターンのステップ1、2、3,を踊り、さらに次のようにクローズド・インピタスに続ける。

As the LF is taken back on the 4th step, give the lady a firm but not too strong, lead with the R hand so that she swings well forward against your R side. Soften the knees and count this step “Q” (not the usual “S”).
男子はステップ4で左足を後退しながら、女子が男子の右側に向かって十分に前方にスイングするように、しっかりとしかし強すぎないように右手でリードする。 膝を柔らかくし、このステップを「Q」とカウントする(通常の「S」ではない)。

Dance the Heel Turn without worrying whether the feet are closed tightly together, and with the knees still soft. Keep the feet parallel even if they are not quite closed. Count this step “S”. It will be noticed that the lady’s forward movement will make you turn. Do not try to turn yourself.
足がきちんと閉じているかどうかを気にせず、膝を柔らかくしてヒールターンを踊ること。足が完全に閉じていないとしても、足を平行に保つこと。このステップを「S」とカウントする。その女子の
前方への動きが自分をターンさせることに気付くであろう。自分自身をターンさせようとしないこと。

Keep a firm hold of the lady to stop her swinging away from you. Do not try to rise. The speed of the lady’s movement will cause you to rise without any effort on your part.
女子がスイングして男子から離れていかないよう女子をしっかりとしたホールドを保つこと。ライズはしないように。男子のほうで何もしなくても女子の速い動きで男子はライズすることになる。

On the 4th beat move the LF to the side and rather more back than in standard technique. Make sure that it is actually placed on a late count of “Q”, and placed lightly with the weight forward, before stepping back on the RF, diagonally to centre against the LOD for the normal “S” count, to continue with the Feather Finish, diagonally to centre.
4番目のビートで、男子は左足を横に動かすが、標準的なテクニックでよりももっと後ろにする。以下のことを確実に行うこと、すなわち、それ(左足)を、カウント「Q」の後半に体重を前に軽くかけてステップすること、その後で(右足を)通常の「S」カウントで逆中央斜めに後退し、中央斜めにフェザー・フィニッシュを続けるようにする。

Thus the timing has been altered from SQQS to QSQS. The effect will be to get early speed, then a Hover, and this expression will be found far more pleasing and attractive than the standard timing.
このように、タイミングはSQQSからQSQSに変更される。その効果は、早いスピード、次にホバーを得ることであり、この表現は、標準のタイミングよりもはるかに楽しく魅力的であることがわかる。

If, when practicing the figure, it is noticed that the effort to quicken the movement between the first and second steps of the Closed Impetus can be seen, you can be sure that it is bad and that you have not mastered the lead. The speed must be gained without obvious effort.
フィガーを練習しているときに、クローズド・インピタスの第1
ステップと第2ステップの間の動きを速める努力が見られる場合は、それが良くないことであり、男子がそのリードをマスターしていないことがわかる。 明らかな努力なしに速度を上げる必要がある。

 

Another extraordinarily good amalgamation to practice is the Open Impetus, followed by the Weave in the Waltz. The Weave from Promenade Position is described on pages 212–217 and is very much used by advanced dancers. Important points to watch are as follows:
練習するためのもう1つの非常に優れたアマルガメーションは、ワルツのウィーブが後に続くオープン・インピタスである。 プロムナード・ポジションからのウィーブは212〜217ページに記載されており、上級ダンサーによって非常に使用されている。 注意すべき重要なポイントは次のとおりである。

Dance 1, 2, 3 of the Natural Turn (Waltz) and then take the 1st step of the Open Impetus back, again giving the lady a firm lead with the R hand to swing her forward against your side.
ナチュラルターン()の1、2、3を踊り、次にオープン・インピタスの最初のステップに入る。再び女子を右手でしっかりとリードを与え、男子のサイド側に向かって前進スイングさせるようにリードする。

The lady’s impetus will now compel you to continue to turn to the R and rise to the toes after the heel turn. Keep firm pressure on the lady’s back to prevent her from overturning, and hover as long as possible before placing weight on to the LF, moving diagonally to centre on a late count of “6”.
女子の推進力により、右にターンし続け、ヒール・ターンの後、トウまでライズするように強制される。 回りすぎないように女子の背中にしっかりと圧力をかけ、左足に体重をかける前にできるだけ長くホバリングし、カウント6の後半で中央斜めに移動する。

The attractive Weave ending should be danced as follows:
魅力的なウィーブエンディングは次のように踊る必要がある。

Step forward with the RF, diagonally to centre in PP, and as this step is taken, give the lady a very firm lead to swing her well across the front of you as you step forward on the LF (on ball of foot), moving almost to centre. On this step (2) the lady will take a long step to side with the RF on the ball of foot, having turned square to the man, but with her head still turned to the R.
プロムナード・ポジションで右足で中央斜めに前進する。このステップを行いながら、女子に非常にしっかりとしたリードを与えて、左足ボールで前進するとともに、自分の前を横切るように女子をほぼ中央に十分に前進スイングさせる。 このステップ(2)で、女子は、男子に対して直角に向きを変えながら、顔を右に向けたまま、右足ボールで横に長いステップを踏む。

The swing given to the lady on the first step will cause her to continue to turn on the ball of RF until facing the LOD, when her LF is placed to the side (3). This swing will also result in the man and lady rising from the ball of foot on the 2nd step, and the man will endeavour to hold this rise with a hover effect, before placing his 3rd step (RF) to side with the body backing the LOD.
最初のステップで女子に与えられたスイングは、女子の左足が横(3)に置かれると、女子はLODに面するまで右足のボール上でターンし続ける。 このスイングにより、男子と女子は2番目のステップでボールからライズしていく結果となり、男子は3番目のステップ(右足)をLODに背面して横に取る前に、このライズをホバー効果とともにしばらく保つよう努力する。

The Weave is continued by the man stepping back with LF down the LOD with the lady outside (4).

On the 5th step the man takes the RF back rather quickly, giving the lady a firm lead forward. Lady will step forward LF in line with man. Both man and lady use the ball of foot on 5.

With the body turning to the L press upwards from the ball of foot (this will be assisted by the lady’s forward swing) and get a slight hover effect before placing the LF to side, with the body facing wall on 6. Take this step slightly late, and lightly.

The next step will be taken outside lady with the RF; remember to lower the L heel and release it again as the weight moves forward over the RF to continue into a Natural figure.

There are many other figures in which better expression can be gained by stealing time from one step and adding that time to the next. The Hover Telemark will look infinitely better if,
あるステップから時間を盗み、その時間を次のステップに追加することで、より良い表現が得られるフィガーは他にも数多くある。 ホバー・テレマークは、次の場合に比較にならないほど良く見える。

instead of giving it the strict SQQS rhythm, the time is distributed to the approximate value of 1+1/2 beats, 1+1/2 beats, 1 beat, 2 beats.
厳密な SQQS リズムを与える代わりに、時間はおおよそ 1+1/2ビート、1+1/2ビート、1ビート、2ビートの値に分配される。

The really first-class dancer will know whether an unusual rhythmic interpretation is justified on artistic grounds by the feel of it. The less experienced dancer should seek the advice of a professional who can tell at once whether an unusual interpretation is advisable.
本当に一流のダンサーは、そのフィーリングで、普通でないリズミカルな解釈が芸術的な理由で正当化されるかどうかを知るだろう。 経験の浅いダンサーは、普通でない解釈が望ましいかどうかをすぐに判断できるプロフェッショナルのアドバイスを求める必要がある。

 

For the Keen Dancer P295-P305